This report provides an overview of child abuse and neglect trends, explains the state and county roles in the Child Welfare Services (CWS) system, and examines the outcomes of children involved with the CWS system. In general, CWS outcomes have improved since the last decade. Foster children spend, on average, less time in foster care (which is generally considered a positive trend), are more quickly reunified with their families, and have more permanency in their living situations. However, this report raises several issues for the Legislature to consider in improving outcomes for children in the CWS system. In the report, we discuss how child well-being is not adequately measured in the CWS system and we suggest options for improving the evaluation of child well-being. We also raise issues related to improving group home quality through provider rate reform and accreditation standards. Finally, we make suggestions for how the current 2011 Realignment growth funding allocation process could be modified to provide county incentives for improved performance.