In response to the Supplemental Report of the 2013-14 Budget Package, this brief presents our assessment of the existing COS program and makes a series of recommendations to improve the efficiency and accountability of the program. While we find that Caltrans has made minor improvements to the COS program in recent years, the program generally lacks accountability and is not operating efficiently. Specifically, we find that the COS program currently (1) lacks performance data to adequately measure program effectiveness, (2) is experiencing a substantial decline in workload that will result in significant overstaffing starting in 2014-15, and (3) allows for limited legislative and external oversight. Significant reductions to the size of the program and increases in the level of external oversight are necessary in order to ensure the state's limited transportation funds are used wisely. We recommend that the Legislature take a first step to address the COS overstaffing problem in the 2014-15 budget. In addition, we recommend that the Legislature take steps for the California Transportation Commission to perform specific oversight and project approval functions for projects that currently have limited oversight.